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关于不同网段的互访和网络通信的原理

跨网段互访有以下几种形式:

1.物理上不直接相连的不同网段的网络设备(包括路由,主机)。

2.物理上直连的不同网段的网络设备。

 

为什么不同网段不能直接互访呢?

查阅我所知道所有资料,搜索所有网络连接的声明,都没有任何明确的说法说不同网段不能互访。

 

对于第一种情况由于很常见很好理解,物理上不直接相连,显然数据传输过程需要封装解封装,必须要要路由设备才能转发,实现互访。准确说是必须要路由表和路由器。

 

对于第二种情况,直接相连的两台主机,分别设置在不是同一网段,为什么不能互访呢?

其实这和第一种情况本质是一样的。但第二种情况需要先了解数据传输的机制才能理解。

 

以ping为例:ping程序实际是应用层的东西,ping 某个IP 实际上涉及网络层数据包。抓包分析,ping包是基于IP报文的数据包。并没有tcp或udp等基于传输层的报文,显然也没有任何端口。

 

当主机A进行ping 主机B时,究竟是怎样一个过程呢?

根据我自己的实验推理。我认为主机A进行ping主机B时,

1.首先在应用层如cmd命令符对话框输入ping 主机B的IP地址后,应用层认为语法正确并通过CPU的进程转交给会话层,进而转交给网络层。

 

2.然后在网络层,主机A查找自己的路由表,看是否有主机B的IP地址的对应路由。如果没有对应的对应的路由表,直接丢弃该数据包,不做任何处理。如果有,发送携带主机B的IP地址的ping数据包,并将该数据包转交给数据链路层。

 

3.然后在数据链路层,由于最初始状态,主机A是没有物理地址缓存的,查找ping包的目标IP地址,发现没有对应物理地址列表,于是主机A的网卡在链路层发起携带目的物理地址为FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF的ARP广播帧,并且携带的信息是:Who has 主机B的IP地址?  Tell 主机A的IP地址,请求携带主机B的IP地址的主机回应。

当携带主机B的IP地址主机收到基于二层ARP协议的广播帧后,检查发现自己携带有主机B的IP地址,于是创建一个主机A的物理地址对应主机A的IP地址的缓存表,并且将刚才发的广播帧的源物理地址即主机A的物理地址转换为目的物理地址,将主机B的物理地址设置为源物理地址,发送一个回应帧,告诉主机A,它携带有主机B的IP地址,并且将主机B的物理地址通告给主机A。

主机A收到回应后,于是主机A也建立一条主机B的物理地址对应主机B的IP地址的缓存表。这个物理地址到IP地址的缓存表大约持续1分钟后消失。这个过程有且只有2个数据帧,一个是主机A发送的广播帧,一个是主机B回应的单播帧。

 

4.基于二层的ARP协议广播帧收到回应后,主机A和主机B分别生成了目标物理地址——目标IP地址的缓存表。主机A封装网络层ping数据包成帧的时候查找ARP缓存表得到目的IP地址对应的物理地址,于是发送该帧到主机B,主机B收到该帧以后,解封装成IP数据包,进而交给应用层ping程序处理。ping程序收到回应后,发送一个ping回应包经过网络层,链路层的封装后,查找主机B的ARP混村表进而发送给主机A,主机收到ping回应帧后,解封装为ping回应包,转交给应用层,最后出现ping的结果,一般为 Reply from 192.168.22.100: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128

 

这个4个过程速度是几乎等于光电的速度或者CPU的处理速度。

另外查收APR缓存表的DOS命令是:arp -a,查找主机的路由表的DOS命令是:route print

添加主机路由表的命令是route add 目标网络 mask 子网掩码 本地网卡IP地址

 

根据以上原理并且实际验证,两台直连或者通过交换机直接相连的主机,分别设置成不同网段,是完全可以互访的。但必须在两台主机中,通过DOS命令route add 各自添加到对端主机的路由表。即可。

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