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MTU,MSS,最小数据包

根据美国电气协会ITU规定,10M/100M以太网帧的最大长度1518字节。这个值可以称之为二层MTU。

二层MTU不包括以太帧前导码7byte和帧界定符1byte,但包括以太帧FCS校验和4byte,这三部分抓包工具都捕获不到,抓包工具wireshark能捕获到的最大长度是1526-7-1-4=1514byte。

帧报头包括:源物理地址占6字节,目的物理地址占6字节,类型type占2字节,帧尾FCS占4字节,共6+6+2+4=18字节。

 

通常说的MTU是指以太帧最大长度1518字节除去帧报头的长度18字节,即1500字节,即三层MTU。

查看计算机MTU命令是netstat /ev(XP系统),netsh interface ipv4 show interface(win7以上系统)。

微软官方申明win2003和winXP系统没有修改MTU的接口,

win7,visita,win2008,win2012修改MTU值的命令是:

netsh interface ipv4 set subinterface "本地连接" MTU=1400 store=persistent。

MTU不包括链路层以太帧的内容,但包括IP报头及其他上层内容。

对于ping包而言,IP报头占20字节,icmp报头占8字节,其余为数据长度。

所以ping包所能携带的数据最长为1500-20-8=1472字节。

 而ping程序的参数-L 表示携带的数据长度,穿越不能IP分片传输的设置时,这个值不超过1472字节。

一些低端的路由器交换机和高端的侧重安全的网络设备如防火墙不支持IP包分片,如果超过MTU,会出现数据包无法传输的现象。可以通过修改MTU来解决这个问题。

另外一些程序如某些网页程序生成数据包的时候会在IP包的标志位中的DF值设置为1,及强制不分片。这种情况也会出现网络不通的情况。

 

MSS是传输层TCP数据段segment能携带数据的最大长度值,

即MTU去掉三层的IP报文部分20byte,四层TCP报文20byte,1500-20-20=1460byte。

也就是说TCP报文中Len的值(即TCP携带数据的大小,Bytes in flight)不可能超过1460byte。但这只是不考虑分段传送的情况如此。

如果TCP报文Len的值大于1460,肯定是TCP segment of a reassembleed PDU,必然会看到不只1个数据包如下图所示:

同一TCP连接(源IP,源端口,目的IP,目的端口,协议类型)中,连续多个数据包sequence序号不中断排列。也就是TCP分组传送,重组接收。

这是Len长度会明显大于1460byte

 

以太网最小数据包长度64byte即512bit。

注意:抓包工具抓到的最小包是54byte=12+20+20+2=以太帧长度+ip报文+tcp报文+2字节置零填充。

这种包都是从本机发出去的没有经过物理层网卡填充的数据包。收到的包最小64byte。

有线10M以太网中,采用CSMA/CD(carrier sense multi access/collision detect)即载波侦听多路访问/冲突检测机制来确保数据链路层以太帧正常发送。

由于以太帧在物理层中是以电磁波高低电平的形式传送,而电磁波的速度2*10^8m/s,即两亿米每秒相当于光速的2/3。

注意10/100/1000M/s是指网卡制造信号并发送出去的速度,而2*10^8m/s是指这些信号在线路上的传播速度。

10M以太网最大长度是2500m(500米一段,通过4个中继设备),来回的传输延时

propagation delay=2*(2500/(2*10^8))=25*10^-6=25us

在来回的线路上的传输延时是25微妙,由于通过中继设备转发时也会造成延迟大约25微妙,一共加起来需要51.2us。

也就是说网卡从发送出一个信号开始计时,到收到2500m远的目的设备回传过来的信号共需要51.2us,那么这段时间网卡共能发送

51.2us*10M/s=512个信号,而这个信号是按bit计算也就是512bit即64byte的数据。

CSMA/CD传输机制规定网卡是先检测通道是否空闲,如果空闲则一边发送一连串的信号一边侦听是否发生碰撞,当这一连串的信号发送完后,不再侦听这一连串的信号是否在链路上发生冲突。

 

如果发送的这一连串信号即一个数据包的长度小于512bit即64byte,在第一个回传的信号回来之前,网卡已经把这一连串的信号发送完,并且不在侦听检测是否存在与之对应的信号冲突,那么如果这串信号如果在链路上传输时其他网卡也同时发送数据,就会扰乱这一连串的信号,那么真正的接收方就不到正确的数据,无法正常通信。所以必须至少在接收到第一个回传信号时确保信号还没发送完,意味着网卡必须持续工作至少51.2us,那么至少要发送512个bit数据,即64byte,所以10M以太网最小数据包是64byte。

由于100M以太网是在10M以太网基础上发展起来的,相关的标准规范和10M以太网一致,规定网卡必须持续发送最少5.12us的数据,对应64byte。

但是100M以太网其实最小的数据包小于64byte也能检测到冲突,由于网卡制造时对应的软件驱动程序规定了必须连续发送512bit不足的填充0,所以100M以太网最小的以太帧也是64byte。

而1000M以太网则最小的以太帧是512byte。另外点对点链路由于不存在冲突,所以不需要限制最小数据帧长度。

另外无线网络使用的CSMA/CA(carrier sense multi access/collision avoid)即载波侦听多路访问/冲突避免机制,并不需要检测信号冲突,所以无线网络最小的数据帧没有规定最小,小于64byte不会填充以太帧。目前见过的最小帧是42byte,包括发送帧和接受帧。

 

总而言之,使用有线10/100M以太网,wireshark抓包,收到的最小包是60byte(不包括4byte帧尾),最大长度1514byte。

使用无线网卡时,没有限定最小帧长度,一般为42byte,最大帧长度1514byte。

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